The U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit has revived a federal hate crime prosecution against a man who physically assaulted a gay co-worker without provocation at an Amazon Fulfillment Center in Chester, Virginia. U.S. District Judge John A. Gibney, Jr. (E.D. Va.), had dismissed the case, accepting defendant James William Hill, III’s argument that prosecuting him would violate Congress’s constitutional authority to enact legislation under the Commerce Clause, because his conduct was not motivated by any desire to interfere with interstate commerce and was a purely private dispute. United States v. Hill, 2017 WL 3575241, 2017 U.S. App. LEXIS 15678 (August 18, 2017). According to the opinion for the appeals court by Judge Dennis W. Shedd, the indictment against Hill alleges that he “willfully caused bodily injury to C.T. because of C.T.’s actual and perceived sexual orientation” in violation of the Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2009, and that this was sufficient to withstand a motion to dismiss the indictment. An opinion agreeing that the case can be prosecuted but dissenting from the “basis for the judgment” by the panel, was written by Judge James A. Wynne, and provides more factual details about the case. Wynne charged the majority with failing to confront an important question about the application of the federal hate crimes law that was directly presented by this case.
C.T. was preparing packages for interstate shipment when Hill assaulted him around 7:00 p.m. on May 22, 2015. According to Wynne, “Defendant approached C.T. from behind and – without provocation or warning – repeatedly punched him in the face. As a result of the attack, C.T. sustained numerous injuries, including a bloody nose, abrasions on his nose and cheeks, and lacerations and bruising around his left eye. Following the incident, neither Defendant nor C.T. returned to their work stations for the remainder of their ten-hour shifts. Their absences affected more than 5,500 items, which were either not shipped or not ‘re-binned’ during that time.” After the incident, Hill provided a statement to Amazon’s staff and subsequently to the Chesterfield County police. Both times, he stated that he “felt disrespected by C.T. because C.T. was a homosexual; that he does not like homosexuals; and that C.T. deserved to be punched because he was a homosexual.” “Hill offered no other explanation for the assault,” wrote Judge Wynne.